World energy consumption increased by 186% between 1973 and 2010 and for the same period industry’s use increased by 157%
Global energy demand is expected to grow by more than 1/3 over the period to 2035, with China, India and the Middle Eastern countries accounting for about 60% of the increase. Over the period 2010-2035, there is evidence that demand for all types of primary energy will increase. Electricity demand is expected to grow by approximately 70% by 2035, with India and China accounting for more than half that growth.
Women and children represent a disproportionately large fraction of the bottom billion: the world's population living on less than US$1.25 per day
They have the most to gain from poverty reduction measures centered on improving access to water supply and energy services. Water and firewood collection can place women and girls at increased risk of sexual or physical assault, especially at night in the absence of adequate lighting. The over-reliance on straw, wood, charcoal or dung for cooking and heating is detrimental to women's and children's health: they account for more than 85% of the 2 million yearly deaths attributed to cancer, respiratory infection and lung disease due to indoor air pollution. Women and girls are also the most exposed to waterborne diseases.
Between 2010 and 2015, almost 200,000 people will move to the world's cities daily, with 91% of this growth expected in cities of developing countries. Cities not only consume large amounts of water: their high concentration of industry, transport systems and buildings also demands large amounts of energy (cities consume 60-80% of the commercial energy). As many of the rapidly growing cities in developing countries -particularly in Africa, South Asia and China- already face problems related to water and energy, they will be major hotspots for water and energy crises in the future.
Demographic projections suggest that world population will increase by a third -to 9.3 billion- by 2050. Most of this increase will occur in developing countries. Estimates suggest that global food production will need to increase by as much as 60% by 2050 to meed demand.
Agriculture is the biggest water user, with irrigation accounting for 70% of global water withdrawals
The industrial and domestic sectors account for the remaining 20% and 10%, respectively, although these figures vary considerably across countries. In most of the world's least developed countries, agriculture accounts for more than 90% of water withdrawals. Rainfed agriculture is the predominant agricultural production system around the world, and its current productivity is, on average, little more than 1/2 the potential obtainable under optimal agricultural management. Without improved efficiencies, agricultural water consumption is expected to increase globally by about 20% by 2050.
Industry uses proportionately significantly more of the energy supply than it does of the water supply
The industrial sector accounts for about 37% of primary global energy use and 19% of all water withdrawals, although the latter with big regional variations: 2% in South Asia and 77% in Western Europe. In developed countries, industrial water use may be stabilizing due to increased efficiency and the move of some manufacturing plants to low income countries, although lack of access to water may hinder such moves, especially for water-dependent industries. As industry is primarily focused on production, its interest is to secure water and energy at the lowest prices and not necessarily within a programme of water and energy efficiency. This provides an opportunity for policy intervention.
The number of people whose right to water is not satisfied is even greater, probably in the order of 3.5 billion.
For developing countries alone, it has been estimated that $103 billion per year are required to finance water, sanitation and wastewater treatment through 2015.
Between 2000 and 2010, electricity generation from wind grew by 27% and from solar PV by 42% per year on average.
Wind and solar power are expected to continue expand rapidly over the next 20 years.
Between 1973 and 2010, world energy consumption increased by 186% and industry's use by 157%. However, about one-fifth of the world's population lacks access to electricity -with more than 95% of them located in sub-Saharan Africa and developing Asia- and roughly 2.6 billion use solid fuels (mainly biomass) for cooking. Sub-Saharan Africa is the least electrified of all major regions, with 57% of its population without access to electricity in 2011; it is the only region in which the absolute number of people without access to electricity is increasing.