The demand for agricultural feedstock for biofuels is the largest source of new demand for agricultural production in decades, and it was a major factor behind the 2007−2008 spike in world commodity prices.
Geothermal energy is climate independent, produces no GHG emissions, does not consume water, and its availability is infinite at human time scales.
Energy is required for two components of water provision: pumping and treatment (before and after use). Electricity costs are estimated at 5% to 30% of the total operating cost of water and wastewater utilities, but in some developing countries such as India and Bangladesh, it is as high as 40% of the total operating cost.
There are currently more than 16 000 desalination plants worldwide, with a total global operating capacity of roughly 70 million m3 per day. Desalinated water involves the use of at least 75.2 TWh per year, which is about 0.4% of global electricity consumption.
Wastewater contains energy in the form of potential energy, thermal energy and chemically bound energy, all of which can be harnessed and utilized. In the USA, there are 104 wastewater treatment plants using biogas to produce a total of 190 MW capacity.
Waterborne transit is one of the most energy efficient means of transport. Inland towing barges are more than three times more energy efficient than road trucks and 40% more efficient than rail.
Approximately 15–18 billion m3 of freshwater resources are contaminated by fossil fuel production every year.
Producing 1 kg of grain requires approximately 1 500 litres of water while 1 kg of beef requires 15 000 litres.
As of 2011, 1.3 billion tons of food, about one third of the global food production, are lost or wasted annually. Per capita food waste by consumers in Europe and North-America is estimated at 95-115 kg/year, while this figure in Sub-Saharan Africa and South/Southeast Asia is only 6-11 kg/year. This wreaks significant harm on natural resources, including water.
Poor drainage and irrigation practices have led to waterlogging and salinization of approximately 10 percent of the world's irrigated lands.